In addition to what hpwombat mentioned you might want to look to the surrealists for some of this, or maybe paul goodman or the black mask? I'm not really that familiar with their stuff, so it is just a general sense I've gotten, more than me knowing you should seek these out. If you can find them, early issues of AJODA and Fifth Estate would probably be worth checking out as well. Against His-Story, Against Leviathan! by Fredy Perlman (http://theanarchistlibrary.org/library/fredy-perlman-against-his-story-against-leviathan
) is, while not focused on chaos, a precursor to the mytho-poetic style Bey employs.
Honestly, most of the well known anarchist writing of the 20th century (shifting only in the 1980's, really) was anarchists who associated with the left trying to argue that anarchy was order, and trying to use the logic of civilization to argue for anarchism as a sort of next progressive step. Blech.