I think that changing language can change behavior to some extent, but I don't think it changes thinking. And I think a lot of times changing language can be a way of hiding a continuance of behavior that ought to change.
On the one hand, I can point to the changes in the way that pronouns are used as a place where there is a change in language that has definitely changed (maybe only marginally, but indisputably) behavior. The increasing acceptance of they/them has led to people being less and less likely to project an assumed gender on to a person.
Also, it can change behavior but leave ideas unchanged. I know at least one friend who uses pronouns that don't match their gender presentation. I know to use those pronouns, and internally I still categorize them as x_ (that is a genetics joke). Get enough drinks in me, and I even slip on what I say because the thought/behavior mediation present when sober is eroded.
Changing language can also mask continued behavior that a person wants to hide. Think of the "feminist" men who know all the right words and quote bell hooks or whatever but are still predators. Or to a lesser extent, the folks who change how they talk, and really want to change how they act, but they see changing language as the same as changing behavior.
I have no idea about esperanto (seems like a failed experiment), but I do recall one of the things I thought about a lot when I was first coming out as an anarchist was how different languages treat genders, in particular how Latin languages gender things, and how that may (or may not) impact the gender roles in cultures using that language. I definitely think it can, but I think it is generational, my job includes lots of working with teens, and I've observed a lot of slow shifts in behavior that seem to be connected to what is "acceptable" behavior.
How does this relate to anarchy? How doesn't it. The ways we move through the world and how we perceive the world are, well, that's all there is. We can think our thoughts, but how do we live them? That's what matters.
An interesting thing to explore (in comments, in another question) is code switching.